Package 'xml2'

Title: Parse XML
Description: Work with XML files using a simple, consistent interface. Built on top of the 'libxml2' C library.
Authors: Hadley Wickham [aut, cre], Jim Hester [aut], Jeroen Ooms [aut], Posit Software, PBC [cph, fnd], R Foundation [ctb] (Copy of R-project homepage cached as example)
Maintainer: Hadley Wickham <hadley@posit.co>
License: MIT + file LICENSE
Version: 1.3.6.9000
Built: 2023-12-04 18:14:37 UTC
Source: https://github.com/r-lib/xml2

Help Index


Coerce xml nodes to a list.

Description

This turns an XML document (or node or nodeset) into the equivalent R list. Note that this is as_list(), not as.list(): lapply() automatically calls as.list() on its inputs, so we can't override the default.

Usage

as_list(x, ns = character(), ...)

Arguments

x

A document, node, or node set.

ns

Optionally, a named vector giving prefix-url pairs, as produced by xml_ns(). If provided, all names will be explicitly qualified with the ns prefix, i.e. if the element bar is defined in namespace foo, it will be called foo:bar. (And similarly for attributes). Default namespaces must be given an explicit name. The ns is ignored when using xml_name<-() and xml_set_name().

...

Needed for compatibility with generic. Unused.

Details

as_list currently only handles the four most common types of children that an element might have:

Examples

as_list(read_xml("<foo> a <b /><c><![CDATA[<d></d>]]></c></foo>"))
as_list(read_xml("<foo> <bar><baz /></bar> </foo>"))
as_list(read_xml("<foo id = 'a'></foo>"))
as_list(read_xml("<foo><bar id='a'/><bar id='b'/></foo>"))

Coerce a R list to xml nodes.

Description

This turns an R list into the equivalent XML document. Not all R lists will produce valid XML, in particular there can only be one root node and all child nodes need to be named (or empty) lists. R attributes become XML attributes and R names become XML node names.

Usage

as_xml_document(x, ...)

Arguments

x

A document, node, or node set.

...

Needed for compatibility with generic. Unused.

Examples

as_xml_document(list(x = list()))

# Nesting multiple nodes
as_xml_document(list(foo = list(bar = list(baz = list()))))

# attributes are stored as R attributes
as_xml_document(list(foo = structure(list(), id = "a")))
as_xml_document(list(foo = list(
  bar = structure(list(), id = "a"),
  bar = structure(list(), id = "b")
)))

Download a HTML or XML file

Description

Libcurl implementation of C_download (the "internal" download method) with added support for https, ftps, gzip, etc. Default behavior is identical to download.file(), but request can be fully configured by passing a custom curl::handle().

Usage

download_xml(
  url,
  file = basename(url),
  quiet = TRUE,
  mode = "wb",
  handle = curl::new_handle()
)

download_html(
  url,
  file = basename(url),
  quiet = TRUE,
  mode = "wb",
  handle = curl::new_handle()
)

Arguments

url

A character string naming the URL of a resource to be downloaded.

file

A character string with the name where the downloaded file is saved.

quiet

If TRUE, suppress status messages (if any), and the progress bar.

mode

A character string specifying the mode with which to write the file. Useful values are "w", "wb" (binary), "a" (append) and "ab".

handle

a curl handle object

Details

The main difference between curl_download and curl_fetch_disk is that curl_download checks the http status code before starting the download, and raises an error when status is non-successful. The behavior of curl_fetch_disk on the other hand is to proceed as normal and write the error page to disk in case of a non success response.

For a more advanced download interface which supports concurrent requests and resuming large files, have a look at the multi_download function.

Value

Path of downloaded file (invisibly).

See Also

curl_download

Examples

## Not run: 
download_html("http://tidyverse.org/index.html")

## End(Not run)

Read HTML or XML.

Description

Read HTML or XML.

Usage

read_xml(x, encoding = "", ..., as_html = FALSE, options = "NOBLANKS")

read_html(x, encoding = "", ..., options = c("RECOVER", "NOERROR", "NOBLANKS"))

## S3 method for class 'character'
read_xml(x, encoding = "", ..., as_html = FALSE, options = "NOBLANKS")

## S3 method for class 'raw'
read_xml(
  x,
  encoding = "",
  base_url = "",
  ...,
  as_html = FALSE,
  options = "NOBLANKS"
)

## S3 method for class 'connection'
read_xml(
  x,
  encoding = "",
  n = 64 * 1024,
  verbose = FALSE,
  ...,
  base_url = "",
  as_html = FALSE,
  options = "NOBLANKS"
)

Arguments

x

A string, a connection, or a raw vector.

A string can be either a path, a url or literal xml. Urls will be converted into connections either using base::url or, if installed, curl::curl. Local paths ending in .gz, .bz2, .xz, .zip will be automatically uncompressed.

If a connection, the complete connection is read into a raw vector before being parsed.

encoding

Specify a default encoding for the document. Unless otherwise specified XML documents are assumed to be in UTF-8 or UTF-16. If the document is not UTF-8/16, and lacks an explicit encoding directive, this allows you to supply a default.

...

Additional arguments passed on to methods.

as_html

Optionally parse an xml file as if it's html.

options

Set parsing options for the libxml2 parser. Zero or more of

RECOVER

recover on errors

NOENT

substitute entities

DTDLOAD

load the external subset

DTDATTR

default DTD attributes

DTDVALID

validate with the DTD

NOERROR

suppress error reports

NOWARNING

suppress warning reports

PEDANTIC

pedantic error reporting

NOBLANKS

remove blank nodes

SAX1

use the SAX1 interface internally

XINCLUDE

Implement XInclude substitition

NONET

Forbid network access

NODICT

Do not reuse the context dictionary

NSCLEAN

remove redundant namespaces declarations

NOCDATA

merge CDATA as text nodes

NOXINCNODE

do not generate XINCLUDE START/END nodes

COMPACT

compact small text nodes; no modification of the tree allowed afterwards (will possibly crash if you try to modify the tree)

OLD10

parse using XML-1.0 before update 5

NOBASEFIX

do not fixup XINCLUDE xml:base uris

HUGE

relax any hardcoded limit from the parser

OLDSAX

parse using SAX2 interface before 2.7.0

IGNORE_ENC

ignore internal document encoding hint

BIG_LINES

Store big lines numbers in text PSVI field

base_url

When loading from a connection, raw vector or literal html/xml, this allows you to specify a base url for the document. Base urls are used to turn relative urls into absolute urls.

n

If file is a connection, the number of bytes to read per iteration. Defaults to 64kb.

verbose

When reading from a slow connection, this prints some output on every iteration so you know its working.

Value

An XML document. HTML is normalised to valid XML - this may not be exactly the same transformation performed by the browser, but it's a reasonable approximation.

Setting the "user agent" header

When performing web scraping tasks it is both good practice — and often required — to set the user agent request header to a specific value. Sometimes this value is assigned to emulate a browser in order to have content render in a certain way (e.g. ⁠Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 5.1; rv:52.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/52.0⁠ to emulate more recent Windows browsers). Most often, this value should be set to provide the web resource owner information on who you are and the intent of your actions like this Google scraping bot user agent identifier: ⁠Googlebot/2.1 (+http://www.google.com/bot.html)⁠.

You can set the HTTP user agent for URL-based requests using httr::set_config() and httr::user_agent():

httr::set_config(httr::user_agent("me@example.com; +https://example.com/info.html"))

httr::set_config() changes the configuration globally, httr::with_config() can be used to change configuration temporarily.

Examples

# Literal xml/html is useful for small examples
read_xml("<foo><bar /></foo>")
read_html("<html><title>Hi<title></html>")
read_html("<html><title>Hi")

# From a local path
read_html(system.file("extdata", "r-project.html", package = "xml2"))

## Not run: 
# From a url
cd <- read_xml(xml2_example("cd_catalog.xml"))
me <- read_html("http://had.co.nz")

## End(Not run)

Convert between relative and absolute urls.

Description

Convert between relative and absolute urls.

Usage

url_absolute(x, base)

url_relative(x, base)

Arguments

x

A character vector of urls relative to that base

base

A string giving a base url.

Value

A character vector of urls

See Also

xml_url to retrieve the URL associated with a document

Examples

url_absolute(c(".", "..", "/", "/x"), "http://hadley.nz/a/b/c/d")

url_relative("http://hadley.nz/a/c", "http://hadley.nz")
url_relative("http://hadley.nz/a/c", "http://hadley.nz/")
url_relative("http://hadley.nz/a/c", "http://hadley.nz/a/b")
url_relative("http://hadley.nz/a/c", "http://hadley.nz/a/b/")

Escape and unescape urls.

Description

Escape and unescape urls.

Usage

url_escape(x, reserved = "")

url_unescape(x)

Arguments

x

A character vector of urls.

reserved

A string containing additional characters to avoid escaping.

Examples

url_escape("a b c")
url_escape("a b c", "")

url_unescape("a%20b%2fc")
url_unescape("%C2%B5")

Parse a url into its component pieces.

Description

Parse a url into its component pieces.

Usage

url_parse(x)

Arguments

x

A character vector of urls.

Value

A dataframe with one row for each element of x and columns: scheme, server, port, user, path, query, fragment.

Examples

url_parse("http://had.co.nz/")
url_parse("http://had.co.nz:1234/")
url_parse("http://had.co.nz:1234/?a=1&b=2")
url_parse("http://had.co.nz:1234/?a=1&b=2#def")

Write XML or HTML to disk.

Description

This writes out both XML and normalised HTML. The default behavior will output the same format which was read. If you want to force output pass option = "as_xml" or option = "as_html" respectively.

Usage

write_xml(x, file, ...)

## S3 method for class 'xml_document'
write_xml(x, file, ..., options = "format", encoding = "UTF-8")

write_html(x, file, ...)

## S3 method for class 'xml_document'
write_html(x, file, ..., options = "format", encoding = "UTF-8")

Arguments

x

A document or node to write to disk. It's not possible to save nodesets containing more than one node.

file

Path to file or connection to write to.

...

additional arguments passed to methods.

options

default: ‘format’. Zero or more of

format

Format output

no_declaration

Drop the XML declaration

no_empty_tags

Remove empty tags

no_xhtml

Disable XHTML1 rules

require_xhtml

Force XHTML rules

as_xml

Force XML output

as_html

Force HTML output

format_whitespace

Format with non-significant whitespace

encoding

The character encoding to use in the document. The default encoding is ‘UTF-8’. Available encodings are specified at http://xmlsoft.org/html/libxml-encoding.html#xmlCharEncoding.

Examples

h <- read_html("<p>Hi!</p>")

tmp <- tempfile(fileext = ".xml")
write_xml(h, tmp, options = "format")
readLines(tmp)

# write formatted HTML output
write_html(h, tmp, options = "format")
readLines(tmp)

Retrieve an attribute.

Description

xml_attrs() retrieves all attributes values as a named character vector, ⁠xml_attrs() <-⁠ or xml_set_attrs() sets all attribute values. xml_attr() retrieves the value of single attribute and ⁠xml_attr() <-⁠ or xml_set_attr() modifies its value. If the attribute doesn't exist, it will return default, which defaults to NA. xml_has_attr() tests if an attribute is present.

Usage

xml_attr(x, attr, ns = character(), default = NA_character_)

xml_has_attr(x, attr, ns = character())

xml_attrs(x, ns = character())

xml_attr(x, attr, ns = character()) <- value

xml_set_attr(x, attr, value, ns = character())

xml_attrs(x, ns = character()) <- value

xml_set_attrs(x, value, ns = character())

Arguments

x

A document, node, or node set.

attr

Name of attribute to extract.

ns

Optionally, a named vector giving prefix-url pairs, as produced by xml_ns(). If provided, all names will be explicitly qualified with the ns prefix, i.e. if the element bar is defined in namespace foo, it will be called foo:bar. (And similarly for attributes). Default namespaces must be given an explicit name. The ns is ignored when using xml_name<-() and xml_set_name().

default

Default value to use when attribute is not present.

value

character vector of new value.

Value

xml_attr() returns a character vector. NA is used to represent of attributes that aren't defined.

xml_has_attr() returns a logical vector.

xml_attrs() returns a named character vector if x x is single node, or a list of character vectors if given a nodeset

Examples

x <- read_xml("<root id='1'><child id ='a' /><child id='b' d='b'/></root>")
xml_attr(x, "id")
xml_attr(x, "apple")
xml_attrs(x)

kids <- xml_children(x)
kids
xml_attr(kids, "id")
xml_has_attr(kids, "id")
xml_attrs(kids)

# Missing attributes give missing values
xml_attr(xml_children(x), "d")
xml_has_attr(xml_children(x), "d")

# If the document has a namespace, use the ns argument and
# qualified attribute names
x <- read_xml('
 <root xmlns:b="http://bar.com" xmlns:f="http://foo.com">
   <doc b:id="b" f:id="f" id="" />
 </root>
')
doc <- xml_children(x)[[1]]
ns <- xml_ns(x)

xml_attrs(doc)
xml_attrs(doc, ns)

# If you don't supply a ns spec, you get the first matching attribute
xml_attr(doc, "id")
xml_attr(doc, "b:id", ns)
xml_attr(doc, "id", ns)

# Can set a single attribute with `xml_attr() <-` or `xml_set_attr()`
xml_attr(doc, "id") <- "one"
xml_set_attr(doc, "id", "two")

# Or set multiple attributes with `xml_attrs()` or `xml_set_attrs()`
xml_attrs(doc) <- c("b:id" = "one", "f:id" = "two", "id" = "three")
xml_set_attrs(doc, c("b:id" = "one", "f:id" = "two", "id" = "three"))

Construct a cdata node

Description

Construct a cdata node

Usage

xml_cdata(content)

Arguments

content

The CDATA content, does not include ⁠<![CDATA[⁠

Examples

x <- xml_new_root("root")
xml_add_child(x, xml_cdata("<d/>"))
as.character(x)

Navigate around the family tree.

Description

xml_children returns only elements, xml_contents returns all nodes. xml_length returns the number of children. xml_parent returns the parent node, xml_parents returns all parents up to the root. xml_siblings returns all nodes at the same level. xml_child makes it easy to specify a specific child to return.

Usage

xml_children(x)

xml_child(x, search = 1, ns = xml_ns(x))

xml_contents(x)

xml_parents(x)

xml_siblings(x)

xml_parent(x)

xml_length(x, only_elements = TRUE)

xml_root(x)

Arguments

x

A document, node, or node set.

search

For xml_child, either the child number to return (by position), or the name of the child node to return. If there are multiple child nodes with the same name, the first will be returned

ns

Optionally, a named vector giving prefix-url pairs, as produced by xml_ns(). If provided, all names will be explicitly qualified with the ns prefix, i.e. if the element bar is defined in namespace foo, it will be called foo:bar. (And similarly for attributes). Default namespaces must be given an explicit name. The ns is ignored when using xml_name<-() and xml_set_name().

only_elements

For xml_length, should it count all children, or just children that are elements (the default)?

Value

A node or nodeset (possibly empty). Results are always de-duplicated.

Examples

x <- read_xml("<foo> <bar><boo /></bar> <baz/> </foo>")
xml_children(x)
xml_children(xml_children(x))
xml_siblings(xml_children(x)[[1]])

# Note the each unique node only appears once in the output
xml_parent(xml_children(x))

# Mixed content
x <- read_xml("<foo> a <b/> c <d>e</d> f</foo>")
# Childen gets the elements, contents gets all node types
xml_children(x)
xml_contents(x)

xml_length(x)
xml_length(x, only_elements = FALSE)

# xml_child makes it easier to select specific children
xml_child(x)
xml_child(x, 2)
xml_child(x, "baz")

Construct a comment node

Description

Construct a comment node

Usage

xml_comment(content)

Arguments

content

The comment content

Examples

x <- xml_new_document()
r <- xml_add_child(x, "root")
xml_add_child(r, xml_comment("Hello!"))
as.character(x)

Construct a document type definition

Description

This is used to create simple document type definitions. If you need to create a more complicated definition with internal subsets it is recommended to parse a string directly with read_xml().

Usage

xml_dtd(name = "", external_id = "", system_id = "")

Arguments

name

The name of the declaration

external_id

The external ID of the declaration

system_id

The system ID of the declaration

Examples

r <- xml_new_root(
  xml_dtd(
    "html",
    "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN",
    "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"
  )
)

# Use read_xml directly for more complicated DTD
d <- read_xml(
  '<!DOCTYPE doc [
<!ELEMENT doc (#PCDATA)>
<!ENTITY foo " test ">
]>
<doc>This is a valid document &foo; !</doc>'
)

Find nodes that match an xpath expression.

Description

Xpath is like regular expressions for trees - it's worth learning if you're trying to extract nodes from arbitrary locations in a document. Use xml_find_all to find all matches - if there's no match you'll get an empty result. Use xml_find_first to find a specific match - if there's no match you'll get an xml_missing node.

Usage

xml_find_all(x, xpath, ns = xml_ns(x), ...)

## S3 method for class 'xml_nodeset'
xml_find_all(x, xpath, ns = xml_ns(x), flatten = TRUE, ...)

xml_find_first(x, xpath, ns = xml_ns(x))

xml_find_num(x, xpath, ns = xml_ns(x))

xml_find_int(x, xpath, ns = xml_ns(x))

xml_find_chr(x, xpath, ns = xml_ns(x))

xml_find_lgl(x, xpath, ns = xml_ns(x))

Arguments

x

A document, node, or node set.

xpath

A string containing an xpath (1.0) expression.

ns

Optionally, a named vector giving prefix-url pairs, as produced by xml_ns(). If provided, all names will be explicitly qualified with the ns prefix, i.e. if the element bar is defined in namespace foo, it will be called foo:bar. (And similarly for attributes). Default namespaces must be given an explicit name. The ns is ignored when using xml_name<-() and xml_set_name().

...

Further arguments passed to or from other methods.

flatten

A logical indicating whether to return a single, flattened nodeset or a list of nodesets.

Value

xml_find_all returns a nodeset if applied to a node, and a nodeset or a list of nodesets if applied to a nodeset. If there are no matches, the nodeset(s) will be empty. Within each nodeset, the result will always be unique; repeated nodes are automatically de-duplicated.

xml_find_first returns a node if applied to a node, and a nodeset if applied to a nodeset. The output is always the same size as the input. If there are no matches, xml_find_first will return a missing node; if there are multiple matches, it will return the first only.

xml_find_num, xml_find_chr, xml_find_lgl return numeric, character and logical results respectively.

Deprecated functions

xml_find_one() has been deprecated. Instead use xml_find_first().

See Also

xml_ns_strip() to remove the default namespaces

Examples

x <- read_xml("<foo><bar><baz/></bar><baz/></foo>")
xml_find_all(x, ".//baz")
xml_path(xml_find_all(x, ".//baz"))

# Note the difference between .// and //
# //  finds anywhere in the document (ignoring the current node)
# .// finds anywhere beneath the current node
(bar <- xml_find_all(x, ".//bar"))
xml_find_all(bar, ".//baz")
xml_find_all(bar, "//baz")

# Find all vs find one -----------------------------------------------------
x <- read_xml("<body>
  <p>Some <b>text</b>.</p>
  <p>Some <b>other</b> <b>text</b>.</p>
  <p>No bold here!</p>
</body>")
para <- xml_find_all(x, ".//p")

# By default, if you apply xml_find_all to a nodeset, it finds all matches,
# de-duplicates them, and returns as a single nodeset. This means you
# never know how many results you'll get
xml_find_all(para, ".//b")

# If you set flatten to FALSE, though, xml_find_all will return a list of
# nodesets, where each nodeset contains the matches for the corresponding
# node in the original nodeset.
xml_find_all(para, ".//b", flatten = FALSE)

# xml_find_first only returns the first match per input node. If there are 0
# matches it will return a missing node
xml_find_first(para, ".//b")
xml_text(xml_find_first(para, ".//b"))

# Namespaces ---------------------------------------------------------------
# If the document uses namespaces, you'll need use xml_ns to form
# a unique mapping between full namespace url and a short prefix
x <- read_xml('
 <root xmlns:f = "http://foo.com" xmlns:g = "http://bar.com">
   <f:doc><g:baz /></f:doc>
   <f:doc><g:baz /></f:doc>
 </root>
')
xml_find_all(x, ".//f:doc")
xml_find_all(x, ".//f:doc", xml_ns(x))

The (tag) name of an xml element.

Description

The (tag) name of an xml element.

Modify the (tag) name of an element

Usage

xml_name(x, ns = character())

xml_name(x, ns = character()) <- value

xml_set_name(x, value, ns = character())

Arguments

x

A document, node, or node set.

ns

Optionally, a named vector giving prefix-url pairs, as produced by xml_ns(). If provided, all names will be explicitly qualified with the ns prefix, i.e. if the element bar is defined in namespace foo, it will be called foo:bar. (And similarly for attributes). Default namespaces must be given an explicit name. The ns is ignored when using xml_name<-() and xml_set_name().

value

a character vector with replacement name.

Value

A character vector.

Examples

x <- read_xml("<bar>123</bar>")
xml_name(x)

y <- read_xml("<bar><baz>1</baz>abc<foo /></bar>")
z <- xml_children(y)
xml_name(xml_children(y))

Create a new document, possibly with a root node

Description

xml_new_document creates only a new document without a root node. In most cases you should instead use xml_new_root, which creates a new document and assigns the root node in one step.

Usage

xml_new_document(version = "1.0", encoding = "UTF-8")

xml_new_root(
  .value,
  ...,
  .copy = inherits(.value, "xml_node"),
  .version = "1.0",
  .encoding = "UTF-8"
)

Arguments

version

The version number of the document.

encoding

The character encoding to use in the document. The default encoding is ‘UTF-8’. Available encodings are specified at http://xmlsoft.org/html/libxml-encoding.html#xmlCharEncoding.

.value

node to insert.

...

If named attributes or namespaces to set on the node, if unnamed text to assign to the node.

.copy

whether to copy the .value before replacing. If this is FALSE then the node will be moved from it's current location.

.version

The version number of the document, passed to xml_new_document(version).

.encoding

The encoding of the document, passed to xml_new_document(encoding).

Value

A xml_document object.


XML namespaces.

Description

xml_ns extracts all namespaces from a document, matching each unique namespace url with the prefix it was first associated with. Default namespaces are named d1, d2 etc. Use xml_ns_rename to change the prefixes. Once you have a namespace object, you can pass it to other functions to work with fully qualified names instead of local names.

Usage

xml_ns(x)

xml_ns_rename(old, ...)

Arguments

x

A document, node, or node set.

old, ...

An existing xml_namespace object followed by name-value (old prefix-new prefix) pairs to replace.

Value

A character vector with class xml_namespace so the default display is a little nicer.

Examples

x <- read_xml('
 <root>
   <doc1 xmlns = "http://foo.com"><baz /></doc1>
   <doc2 xmlns = "http://bar.com"><baz /></doc2>
 </root>
')
xml_ns(x)

# When there are default namespaces, it's a good idea to rename
# them to give informative names:
ns <- xml_ns_rename(xml_ns(x), d1 = "foo", d2 = "bar")
ns

# Now we can pass ns to other xml function to use fully qualified names
baz <- xml_children(xml_children(x))
xml_name(baz)
xml_name(baz, ns)

xml_find_all(x, "//baz")
xml_find_all(x, "//foo:baz", ns)

str(as_list(x))
str(as_list(x, ns))

Strip the default namespaces from a document

Description

Strip the default namespaces from a document

Usage

xml_ns_strip(x)

Arguments

x

A document, node, or node set.

Examples

x <- read_xml(
  "<foo xmlns = 'http://foo.com'>
   <baz/>
   <bar xmlns = 'http://bar.com'>
     <baz/>
   </bar>
  </foo>"
)
# Need to specify the default namespaces to find the baz nodes
xml_find_all(x, "//d1:baz")
xml_find_all(x, "//d2:baz")

# After stripping the default namespaces you can find both baz nodes directly
xml_ns_strip(x)
xml_find_all(x, "//baz")

Retrieve the xpath to a node

Description

This is useful when you want to figure out where nodes matching an xpath expression live in a document.

Usage

xml_path(x)

Arguments

x

A document, node, or node set.

Value

A character vector.

Examples

x <- read_xml("<foo><bar><baz /></bar><baz /></foo>")
xml_path(xml_find_all(x, ".//baz"))

Modify a tree by inserting, replacing or removing nodes

Description

xml_add_sibling() and xml_add_child() are used to insert a node as a sibling or a child. xml_add_parent() adds a new parent in between the input node and the current parent. xml_replace() replaces an existing node with a new node. xml_remove() removes a node from the tree.

Usage

xml_replace(.x, .value, ..., .copy = TRUE)

xml_add_sibling(.x, .value, ..., .where = c("after", "before"), .copy = TRUE)

xml_add_child(.x, .value, ..., .where = length(xml_children(.x)), .copy = TRUE)

xml_add_parent(.x, .value, ...)

xml_remove(.x, free = FALSE)

Arguments

.x

a document, node or nodeset.

.value

node to insert.

...

If named attributes or namespaces to set on the node, if unnamed text to assign to the node.

.copy

whether to copy the .value before replacing. If this is FALSE then the node will be moved from it's current location.

.where

to add the new node, for xml_add_child the position after which to add, use 0 for the first child. For xml_add_sibling either ‘"before"’ or ‘"after"’ indicating if the new node should be before or after .x.

free

When removing the node also free the memory used for that node. Note if you use this option you cannot use any existing objects pointing to the node or its children, it is likely to crash R or return garbage.

Details

Care needs to be taken when using xml_remove(),


Serializing XML objects to connections.

Description

Serializing XML objects to connections.

Usage

xml_serialize(object, connection, ...)

xml_unserialize(connection, ...)

Arguments

object

R object to serialize.

connection

an open connection or (for serialize) NULL or (for unserialize) a raw vector (see ‘Details’).

...

Additional arguments passed to read_xml().

Value

For serialize, NULL unless connection = NULL, when the result is returned in a raw vector.

For unserialize an R object.

Examples

library(xml2)
x <- read_xml("<a>
  <b><c>123</c></b>
  <b><c>456</c></b>
</a>")

b <- xml_find_all(x, "//b")
out <- xml_serialize(b, NULL)
xml_unserialize(out)

Set the node's namespace

Description

The namespace to be set must be already defined in one of the node's ancestors.

Usage

xml_set_namespace(.x, prefix = "", uri = "")

Arguments

.x

a node

prefix

The namespace prefix to use

uri

The namespace URI to use

Value

the node (invisibly)


Show the structure of an html/xml document.

Description

Show the structure of an html/xml document without displaying any of the values. This is useful if you want to get a high level view of the way a document is organised. Compared to xml_structure, html_structure prints the id and class attributes.

Usage

xml_structure(x, indent = 2, file = "")

html_structure(x, indent = 2, file = "")

Arguments

x

HTML/XML document (or part there of)

indent

Number of spaces to ident

file

A connection, or a character string naming the file to print to. If "" (the default), cat prints to the standard output connection, the console unless redirected by sink. If it is "|cmd", the output is piped to the command given by ‘cmd’, by opening a pipe connection.

Examples

xml_structure(read_xml("<a><b><c/><c/></b><d/></a>"))

rproj <- read_html(system.file("extdata", "r-project.html", package = "xml2"))
xml_structure(rproj)
xml_structure(xml_find_all(rproj, ".//p"))

h <- read_html("<body><p id = 'a'></p><p class = 'c d'></p></body>")
html_structure(h)

Extract or modify the text

Description

xml_text returns a character vector, xml_double returns a numeric vector, xml_integer returns an integer vector.

Usage

xml_text(x, trim = FALSE)

xml_text(x) <- value

xml_set_text(x, value)

xml_double(x)

xml_integer(x)

Arguments

x

A document, node, or node set.

trim

If TRUE will trim leading and trailing spaces.

value

character vector with replacement text.

Value

A character vector, the same length as x.

Examples

x <- read_xml("<p>This is some text. This is <b>bold!</b></p>")
xml_text(x)
xml_text(xml_children(x))

x <- read_xml("<x>This is some text. <x>This is some nested text.</x></x>")
xml_text(x)
xml_text(xml_find_all(x, "//x"))

x <- read_xml("<p>   Some text    </p>")
xml_text(x, trim = TRUE)

# xml_double() and xml_integer() are useful for extracting numeric attributes
x <- read_xml("<plot><point x='1' y='2' /><point x='2' y='1' /></plot>")
xml_integer(xml_find_all(x, "//@x"))

Determine the type of a node.

Description

Determine the type of a node.

Usage

xml_type(x)

Arguments

x

A document, node, or node set.

Examples

x <- read_xml("<foo> a <b /> <![CDATA[ blah]]></foo>")
xml_type(x)
xml_type(xml_contents(x))

The URL of an XML document

Description

This is useful for interpreting relative urls with url_relative().

Usage

xml_url(x)

Arguments

x

A node or document.

Value

A character vector of length 1. Returns NA if the name is not set.

Examples

catalog <- read_xml(xml2_example("cd_catalog.xml"))
xml_url(catalog)

x <- read_xml("<foo/>")
xml_url(x)

Validate XML schema

Description

Validate an XML document against an XML 1.0 schema.

Usage

xml_validate(x, schema)

Arguments

x

A document, node, or node set.

schema

an XML document containing the schema

Value

TRUE or FALSE

Examples

# Example from https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms256129(v=vs.110).aspx
doc <- read_xml(system.file("extdata/order-doc.xml", package = "xml2"))
schema <- read_xml(system.file("extdata/order-schema.xml", package = "xml2"))
xml_validate(doc, schema)

Get path to a xml2 example

Description

xml2 comes bundled with a number of sample files in its ‘inst/extdata’ directory. This function makes them easy to access.

Usage

xml2_example(path = NULL)

Arguments

path

Name of file. If NULL, the example files will be listed.